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Abadan

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Abadan is thought to have been further developed into a major port city under the Abbasids’ rule. In this time period, it was a commercial source of salt and woven mats. The siltation of the river delta forced the town further away from water; In the 14th century, however, Ibn Battutah described Abadan just as a small port in a flat salty plain. Politically, Abadan was often the subject of dispute between the nearby states; in 1847, Persia acquired it from Turkey, in which state Abadan has remained since. From the 17th century onward, the island of Abadan was part of the lands of the Arab Ka’ab (Bani Kaab) tribe. One section of this tribe, Mohaysen, had its headquarters at Mohammara(present-day Khorramshahr), until the removal of Shaikh Khaz’al Khan in 1924. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); It was not until the 20th century that rich oil fields were discovered in the area. On 16 July 1909, after secret negotiation with the British consul, Percy Cox assisted by Arnold Wilson, Sheik Khaz’al agreed to a rental agreement for the island including Abadan. The Sheik continued to administer the island until 1924. The Anglo-Persian Oil Company built their first pipeline terminus oil refinery in Abadan, starting in 1909 and completing it in 1912, with oil flowing by August 1912 (see Abadan Refinery). Refinery throughput numbers rose from 33,000 tons in 1912-1913 to 4,338,000 tons in 1931.[12] By 1938, it was the largest in the world.
During World War II, Abadan was a major logistics center for Lend-Lease aircraft being sent to the Soviet Union by the United States.
In 1951, Iran nationalized all oil properties and refining ground to a stop on the island. Rioting broke out in Abadan, after the government had decided to nationalize the oil facilities, and 3 British workers were killed. It wasn’t until 1954, that a settlement was reached, which allows a group of international oil companies to manage the production and refining on the island. This continued until 1973, when the NIOC took over all facilities. After total nationalization, Iran focused on supplying oil domestically and built a pipeline from Abadan to Tehran.
Whereas Abadan was not a major cultural or religious center, it did play an important role in the Islamic Revolution. On 19 August 1978—the anniversary of the US backed pro-Shah coup d’état which overthrew the nationalists and popular Iranian prime minister, Dr. Mohammed Mossadegh— the Cinema Rex, a movie theatre in Abadan, Iran, was set ablaze. The Cinema Rex Fire was the site of 430 deaths, but more importantly, it was another event that kept the Islamic Revolution moving ahead. At the time there was a lot of confusion and misinformation about the incident; however the public blamed the local police chief and also the Shah and SAVAK. The reformist Sobhe Emrooz newspaper in one of its editorials revealed that the Cinema Rex was burned down by the radical Islamists. The newspaper was shut down immediately after.[citation needed] Over time, the true culprits, radical Islamists, were apprehended and the logic behind this act was revealed, as they were trying both to foment the general public to distrust the government even more, and also as they perceived cinema as a link to the Americans. This fire was one of four during a short period in August, with other fires in Mashhad, Rizaiya, and Shiraz.

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